Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Life, Death and Basic Essay Outline

Life, Death and Basic Essay Outline What to Do About Basic Essay Outline Before You Miss Your Chance When you first begin writing essays in school, it isn't uncommon to have a whole topic assigned to you. Everyone has the capability to compose the ideal essay. Be certain that you mention the most suitable background so the readers understand what they're reading better. Before starting an essay, it's important to understand what you're writing for. My paper was done punctually and I only got the grade it is a winner! Indeed, it's an overview of writing project before it's prepared and executed. There are a couple versions of a university paper outline template that may be convenient for an aspiring college student. Basic Essay Outline: the Ultimate Convenience! Again, the more work that you do in the outline, the less work you must do when you're writing up the very first draft. The objective of your essay is defined by the kind of paper you're writing. While it's true that every paragraph should continue being focused on a single concept, the paragraph is also a single part of an entire argument. Every paragraph should represent 1 idea. By doing some of the job during the outline, you eliminate a part of the job that has to be completed in the draft. Use descriptive language to spell out the way the procedure is performed. It's only possible to generate an outline in case you have familiarity with the subject. According to recommendation, you have to prepare outline initially before start writing the very first draft of essay. There's, naturally, a limit on the variety of pages even our finest writers can produce with a pressing deadline, but generally, we figure out how to satisfy all the clients seeking urgent assistance. Our essay writing service offers proofreading services if you happen to get stuck on a particular phase of writing, or you might purchase an essay and using it as a template to make your masterpiece. Occasionally it just helps to observe how others have tackled essays before. Since informative essays are factual, it's necessary for the writer to prevent including information that contradi cts the current facts. Using Basic Essay Outline Writing an argumentative essay outline provides the writer an effortless time to put all of the point together. It outlines shows you that even if you are not a professional writer, you can still make a good essay. Essays are able to look very dull sometimes. With essay outline, they will prevent writer to get off topic or jumping from one argument to another argument that does not relate with what you are discussing. Basically, the pieces of an essay proved just 3 divisions. Since it's a narrative essay, they'd make an outstanding add-on. You should restate your most important points and earn an overview of those. Basic principal point of a poetry essay isn't to summarize the ideal college application essays examples but to. Also, you are going to interest the reader and represent your competence in a particular issue. Distinct ideas might call for various ways of representation. The primary purpose of a how-to essay is to supply a very clear set of descriptive instruction on how best to perform a procedure or task. There are particular common factors that point to the caliber and value of the essays. The Secret to Basic Essay Outline The draft goes together with the essay structure so the content can flow in a systematic way. The conclusion of the introductory paragraph should incorporate an elaborate thesis that encapsulates the basis of your gist. You could additionally have a fill er paragraph at which you would fit the extra information that you've found but which does not absolutely relate to your subject issue. The subsequent paragraphs should describe the remainder of the procedure in detail. The introductory paragraph is geared toward capturing the interest of the reader to experience the remainder of the essay and understand the procedure described therein. Utilizing an essay outline makes it possible to organize your thoughts from starting to end and makes sure that you don't leave any critical parts from the middle! Next, when the simple framework is down, you might find it a lot simpler to flesh things out. The basics incorporate an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. Top Basic Essay Outline Secrets Outlines can be helpful for practically any paper that will help you see. They can also serve as a brainstorming tool that can give you an idea of what to write about. Preparing an outline can take some time, but whenever you're finished, you're going to be in a position to compose the rough draft of your essay more quickly than if you didn't have an outline. If you're predicted to create a paper that's an overall overview, then an overall topic will suffice. You are able to search on the net to discover guidelines about how to compose an essay outline whenever you're stuck. Below is a good example of an informative essay outline on this issue Caffeine Addiction. Don't hesitate to customize the research paper outline template if you prefer to.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) within Social Psychology

Social Psychology can be a challenging concept to master when at the beginning of a psychology education. This week as a student in my undergraduate class approached me and asked how he could explain the difference between psychology, sociology and social psychology to his friend. As I began explaining the differences to him, I quickly remembered going through a similar journey of confusion, clarity, more confusion and then finally conceptually understanding the differences and similarities between the three fields previously mentioned. This process of combining to similar, but different fields of study, was similar to the thought processes I went through as I began my journey of understating the differences and similarities between†¦show more content†¦Additionally, when working with client, therapists adhering to CBT often use the STAIRCASE model, which stands for: Situation, Thoughts, Affect, Intention, Response, Consequence and Self-Evaluation (Goldfried, 2003). As stated above there are some very specific techniques which work well when using CBT. Additionally, there are several Social Psychology techniques which can be applied to CBT. I believe that these five techniques which are used with Social Psychology can be used with CBT: goals, cognitive dissonance, conscious override, belief and coping, and moral inclusion. In Social Psychology, goals can be defined as the meaningful connection between action and values (Locke Kristof, 1996; Locke Latham, 1990). Goal setting is common amongst several therapeutic theories. For example, in CBT client should define an area that they would like to work on in therapy and the set a goal for what they would like to change their behavior to. For instance, if a person becomes agitated whenever they see an email with the importance exclamation point, the he can set a goal t overcome the agitation when viewing emails flagged with high importance. Therefore, the person could work with a therapist through the STAIRCASE model mentioned above which would result in the client changing is negative schema to a positive schema. Hence, once the therapy has been completed, he will have reachedShow MoreRelatedCognitive Therapy And Mental Health Problems914 Words   |  4 Pagesindividual engages in (Beck, 1970). Lastly, cognitive errors focus on the faulty thinking that p atients have developed due to the way that they experience the world around them. Cognitive therapy aims to shift this pattern of thinking teaching the patient how to reframe their thoughts to a more rational thought pattern. While this book was written specifically for work with depressed patients, Beck begins to notice within his practice that this therapy technique could be adapted to treat other disordersRead MoreCognitive Psychology : Cognitive Behavioral Therapy1447 Words   |  6 PagesCognitive Behavioral Therapy Djiedjorm Doe (Dede) Middlesex Community College Cognitive behavioral therapy, commonly known as CBT, is a systematic process by which we learn to change our negative thought into more positive ones. CBT is a combination of two types of therapy, cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. cognition is our thought, so cognitive behavioral therapy combines working with our thought process and changing our behavior at the same time. Cognitive behavioral therapistsRead MoreThe Development And Assessment Of A Major Public Health Problem1529 Words   |  7 Pagesdepression, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) can be used to successfully treat various types of addictions. CBT is a practical treatment that can be called a psychosocial intervention (Osborn, Demoncada Feuerstein, 2006). This intervention involves a vast usage of talking therapy to enable the patient to be able to realise that even if they can’t change their situation, they hold the power to change the way they think. The patient could be facing emotional, behavioural and cognitive dysfunctionRead MoreCognitive Behavioral Therapy ( Cbt )1990 Words   |  8 PagesCognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a branch of psychotherapy that encompasses several approaches; falling under the heading of CBT. CBT is based on the premise that people s emotional responses and behavior are strongly influenced by cognitions; the fundamental principle being: different cognitions give rise to different emotions and behaviors. CBT was developed out of a combination of both behavior and cognitive principles. CBT is the most empirically supported therapy model and is used toRead MorePositive Body Image Group Essay1234 Words   |  5 Pagesattitudinal, behavioral, and perceptual components (Bhatnagar, Wisniewski, Solomon, Heinberg, 2013). The attitudinal component consists of beliefs about appearance and body satisfaction, and the behavioral component consists of the frequency of behaviors related to management of wei ght or avoidance. Furthermore, the perceptual component consists of the levels of accuracy estimating body shape and size (Bhatnagar et al., 2013). If symptoms of BID are left untreated, it has been found that there isRead MoreCommunity Supervision Is Not A New Concept1335 Words   |  6 Pagesused to assist social workers who work with this population. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or CBT has gained popularity as an effective based practice. â€Å"Several well-conducted meta-analyses have identified cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as an effective intervention for reducing the recidivism of juvenile and adult offenders† (Landenberger Lipsey, 2005, p.451). CBT was first introduced to criminal justice in the 1980’s when Little and Robinson (1988) used Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT) when providingRead MorePsychoanalytical Theory and Cognitive Behavior Theory1567 Words   |  7 PagesRunning Header: JOURNAL REVIEW Journal Review: An assessment of contemporary studies to Psychoanalytical theory and Cognitive Behavior theory. Abstract Psychoanalytical theory and cognitive behavior theory (CBT) are currently two of the most utilized psychotherapeutic modalities in Western psychology. In the current review of literature, the salience of both theories is analyzed through the evaluation of contemporary studies on the two theories. These studies focused on empirical rather than merelyRead MoreTheoretical Orientation Reflection Paper Natasha Cartwright1686 Words   |  7 PagesTheoretical Orientation Reflection Paper Natasha Cartwright Senior Seminar February 8, 2017 Dr. Hill Theoretical Orientation Reflection Paper Introduction In the field of social work it is essential to be aware of theoretical approaches to incorporate into the work and realize which one fits more effectively with your different perspectives of life. With a better understanding of who you are, it becomes more easier to figure out your best way of counseling; figuring out which theories you find leastRead MoreInterpersonal Psychology : Cognitive Be havioral Therapy1560 Words   |  7 PagesPaykel. Initially, IPT was the control treatment while investigating the effectiveness of antidepressants and found the treatment comparably effective to medications and as credible as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) (Robertson, Rushton, Wurm, 2008). According to Mechanism of Change in Interpersonal therapy (Lipsitz Markowitz, 2013) IPT was utilized in conjunction with medications to treat depression then onto try and treat other types of disorders such as bipolar, anxiety, bulimia, postRead MoreA Comparison of the Emotion-Focused and Cognitive Behavioral Theories of Anger and Its Treatment.3238 Words   |  13 Pagesas a significant social problem that our society facing today. This paper discusses the efficacy of the Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and the Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) for treating patient with anger problems and compared therapists’ view on emotion which how they see emotion as the prime mover in human experience in different ways respectively. Besides, the development, overview and the similarities of CBT EFT has been critically compared and discussed in this essay. CBT and EFT conceptualize

Friday, May 15, 2020

Allusions in Invisible Man - 1591 Words

Allusions in Invisible Man Invisible Man, written with ingenuity by Ralph Waldo Ellison, is a masterpiece by itself, but it also intertwines into every page one or more allusions to previously written masterpieces. Whether intentionally or unintentionally, and whether it was Ellison who incorporated the works into his own or others who incorporated his work into their own, it makes for a brilliant piece of literature. Ellison defines the character of the Invisible Man through literary, Biblical, and historical allusions. In the Prologue, the narrator writes, Call me Jack-the-Bear, for I am in hibernation (6). . Although vague, this reference to Jack indicates all the Jacks in the fairy tales (Jack and the Beanstalk, Jack and Jill,†¦show more content†¦This was a very important speech because it moved many in the audience to tears and put the narrator it a state of emotional shock because of the wisdom that this man portrayed. At the end of the speech the Invisible Man sees that Reverend Barbee is blind. In Homers classics, blindness is not necessarily seen as a disability, but as a sign of deeper wisdom. Although this man cannot literally see objects, he sees many things that others do not see. He possesses a deeper wisdom of what is important and what is not. The Invisible Man in right in looking up to this man. Later in the book, when Brother Jacks glass eye is revealed, the narrator can see that his blindness does not imply wisdom. Although he was blind in one eye, his sneaky way of hiding it, and then revealing it in a crude manner show that his wisdom is no more than skin deep. On page 180 the Invisible Man notices a copy of Totem and Taboo, an investigative study by Sigmund Freud discusses sexuality and incest and its validity and necessity in life. The fact that Sigmund Freud was an important figure in theories of mental development is relevant in the scene that follows. The Invisible Man acts as a psychologist in a way. He listens unwillingly to his patient vent his resentment towards his father. Also, sexuality relates to the previous scene with Trueblood as well as the narrators subsequent conflicts with his own sexuality. Later in the book the Invisible ManShow MoreRelatedInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1694 Words   |  7 Pagesof African Americans who were affected by the Great Depression and cho se to migrate North. In Ralph Ellison’s bildungsroman, Invisible Man, Ellison explores what black identity is in a post-Civil War, post-Great Depression society. Similar to Ellison and his life, the protagonist, Invisible Man, finds himself in New York in search of a job and his purpose in society. Invisible Man’s confusion about his place in society is due to America’s want for a monolithic African American narrative.Liberty PaintsRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Invisible Lakes 1152 Words   |  5 Pagesalways steals the spotlight but the manner in which ideas are conveyed holds equal weight. Invisible Cities avoids the traditional template of a logical or chronologically organized narrative. My essay Invisible Lakes is a vain attempt to mimic the novel’s eclectic organization. Italio Calvino utilizes a kaleidoscopic, narrow point of view to describe Venice in Invisible Cities, just as I do in my essay Invisible Lakes, both to achieve the goals of alludi ng to larger themes, developing more palpableRead MoreBiblical And Mythological Allusions Of Moby Dick851 Words   |  4 PagesMoby-Dick is Herman Melville’s masterpiece, a purposeful novel that acts both as a documentary of a sea voyage but also a philosophical allusion on life as a whole. Moby-Dick is far beyond its time in reference to its use of allusion within its text. In this novel, Herman Melville frequently uses biblical and mythological allusions. With these strategic allusions, the reader is able to begin to understand the topics of discussion within the book and is also exposed to the wisdom and potential knowledgeRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem The Conqueror Worm 799 Words   |  4 PagesThrough biblical allusions and the metaphor of the worm, there is a prominent theme of death. The reference to a real play is shown as five stanzas in the poem parallel five acts in an average play. Death overcoming all is the central theme of this poem. The Conqueror Worm represents mortality and how at the end, even if you survive madness, sin, and horror, you will succumb to death. The worm could be interpreted as an anti-hero that consumes men into unknown depths. Biblical allusion is another familiarRead MoreThe Issue of Identity Formation Depicted in Ralph Ellisons Novel, Invisible Man966 Words   |  4 PagesAll of us go though a period of discovery of our identities. The novel Invisible Man, by Ralph Ellison, addresses the issue of identity formation by following the efforts of an invisible man in search of his identity. He considers himself to be â€Å"invisible† because people refuse to see him for his individuality and intelligence..The narrator in the novel Invisible Man is invisible to others and to himself because of effects of racism and the expectations of others. This is supported in significantRead MoreMelvilles Character Analysis1205 Words   |  5 PagesPierre. However, in Redburn: His First Voyage and The Confidence-Man: His Masquerade, Urbanczyk points out that he specifically comments on Milton s Satan, with the two books displaying conflicting opinions. Wellingborough Redburn believes the Miltonic Satan is not ori ginal because â€Å"he is not a genuine being, but something altered from a genuine original†(Melville qtd. in 281). On the other hand, the narrator of The Confidence-Man claims that the reason the Satan character holds such literary meritRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1366 Words   |  6 Pagesprotection, ending in a solitary blood stained fighter left standing, amidst unbridled carnage. The titular narrator of Ralph Ellison s novel Invisible Man, is no stranger to those experiences. In the beginning, he is forced to fight several other black boxers for the amusement of many heckling, white spectators. Through the imaginative use of objects, symbols, allusions, and the actions, thoughts, and purposes of the spectators, pugilists and risquà © entertainment, Ellison seeks to express a powerfulRead MoreExplication Of The s Story Presentation, A Fellow Classmate Of Mine Claimed That Invisible 1701 Words   |  7 PagesRational Investigations Of Truths In â€Å"The Significance Of Allusions In Trueblood’s Story† presentation, a fellow classmate of mine claimed that Invisible was an Existentialist, and not to offend but frankly in my mind that was so wrong. There is no way to prove that Invisible was a practicing Existentialist. While I agree that Invisible is searching for himself and there are several overarching Existentialist themes present in the novel, I do not believe that you can call him an ExistentialistRead MoreLong Division, The Ideal Man Essay1456 Words   |  6 PagesRalph Ellison’s novel Invisible Man explores the intersections of race and power, where this seemingly ideal black male is one that can outwit the white men. In Kiese Laymon’s novel Long Division, the ideal man is one that can survive white oppression by not coinciding with racial stereotypes. Although these novels introduce the same idea of the us-versus-them mentality, both have vastly differently interpretations on it and ways of fulfilling it. Dr. Bledsoe berating Invisible about not lying to MrRead MoreMy Understanding Of A Portrait Of The Artist As A Young Man By James Joyce1029 Words   |  5 Pagesby reading How to Read Literature Like a Professor by Thomas Foster. There are different stages of comprehension. Authors and readers utilize both experiences and prior knowledge quite often. My understanding of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man By James Joyce was vastly impacted after reading Foster’s book. Instead of just reading the novel, I dove deeper into the text. Originally I might have just said the novel was simply a sort of biography. Instead I would consider it a search of identity

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about Elie Wiesels Night - 1220 Words

When looking at the holocaust, it is widely known the devastation and pain that was caused by the Nazis; however when inspecting the holocaust on a deeper level, it is evident that the Jews were exposed to unimaginable treatment and experimentation often overlooked in history discussions. When looking at â€Å"Night†, Elie Wiesel was helped by the doctors in the camp when his foot was severely infected; although this is not the experience he had, many Jews were mistreated and even killed by the doctors. Many Nazi doctors that were assigned to Jewish patients were later found to have exposed the patients to horrific medical experiments and unnecessary treatments that commonly led to their death. There definitely were cases in which the†¦show more content†¦Many claim that doctors were only advancing science, and others claim the horrid acts that were committed were done because of the hatred towards the Jewish people. Regardless of which fact is inevitably true, both situations caused cruel and inhuman treatment to the Jews, and ultimately led to their deaths at the camps. A civilian doctor named Carl Clauberg was famous for his sterilization experiments. The procedure involved injections to the cervix to destroy the fallopian tubes, and then often the victims were gassed and left for dead (Winik 9). When the Jews arrived on transports, Nazi doctors immediately determined who would be gassed and who would go to a work camp (Winik 8). In Auschwitz, Nazi doctors presided over the murder of most of the one million victims of that camp. â€Å"Doctors consulted actively on how best to keep selections running smoothly, on how many people to permit to remain alive to fil l the slave labor requirements† †¦ â€Å"and on how to burn the enormous numbers of bodies that strained the facilities of the crematoria (Gutman 303). In the book, â€Å"Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp,† Yisrael Gutman offers a summary of the events that took place at Auschwitz: â€Å"It was the Nazi doctors themselves, however, who were the most implicated in Nazi mass murder and brutal experimentation in Auschwitz. There probably has never been an episode in history in whichShow MoreRelatedElie Wiesels Night516 Words   |  3 PagesElie Wiesels Night Elie Wiesel’s Night is about what the Holocaust did, not just to the Jews, but, by extension, to humanity. The disturbing disregard for human beings, or the human body itself, still to this day, exacerbates fear in the hearts of men and women. The animalistic acts by the Nazis has scarred mankind eternally with abhorrence and discrimination. It seems impossible that the examination of one’s health, by a doctor, can result in the death of a human being if he appearsRead More Elie Wiesel’s Night 936 Words   |  4 Pages There exist only two types of people in a time of war and crisis, those who survive and those who die. Elie Wiesel’s novel, Night shows how Elie, himself, faces difficult problems and struggles to survive World War II. Wilfred Owen’s poem, â€Å"Dulce et Decorum Est†, tells a story about a young soldier thinking of himself before others during World War I. The poem â€Å"Mary Hamilton† shows how a mother killed her child so she would not get into trouble. Sir John Harrington writes about a sadRead MoreElie Wiesels Night Essay1159 Words   |  5 PagesElie Wiesels Night As humans, we require basic necessities, such as food, water, and shelter to survive. But we also need a reason to live. The reason could be the thought of a person, achieving some goal, or a connection with a higher being. Humans need something that drives them to stay alive. This becomes more evident when people are placed in horrific situations. In Elie Wiesels memoir Night, he reminisces about his experiences in a Nazi concentration camp during the Holocaust. There theRead MoreAn Analysis of Elie Wiesels Night822 Words   |  3 PagesElie Wiesel: Night The five letters that Elie Wiesel utilizes as the title for his book summarize, within one word, all the feelings, the uncertainty, the anger, the fear, etc. associated with the events contained in this novel. The book is a work of art, and Wiesel is a great storyteller, leaving his audience with a deeper knowledge of both historical events and the defiance and courage of the human spirit. Perhaps the most memorable scene in the story is that in which the author and his fatherRead More Elie Wiesels Night Essay448 Words   |  2 PagesElie Wiesels Night In Elie Wiesel’s Night, he recounts his horrifying experiences as a Jewish boy under Nazi control. His words are strong and his message clear. Wiesel uses themes such as hunger and death to vividly display his days during World War II. Wiesel’s main purpose is to describe to the reader the horrifying scenes and feelings he suffered through as a repressed Jew. His tone and diction are powerful for this subject and envelope the reader. Young readers today find the actionsRead More Elie Wiesels Night Essays1095 Words   |  5 PagesNight In Night, by Elie Wiesel, there is an underlying theme of anger. Anger not directed where it seems most appropriate- at the Nazis- but rather a deeper, inbred anger directed towards God. Having once been a role model of everything a â€Å"good Jew† should be, Wiesel slowly transforms into a faithless human being. He cannot comprehend why the God who is supposed to love and care for His people would refuse to protect them from the Germans. This anger grows as Wiesel does and is a constantRead MoreEssay about Elie Wiesels Night881 Words   |  4 PagesThe tragedies of the holocaust forever altered history. One of the most detailed accounts of the horrific events from the Nazi regime comes from Elie Wiesel’s Night. He describes his traumatic experiences in German concentration camps, mainly Buchenwald, and engages his readers from a victim’s point of view. He bravely shares the grotesque visions that are permanently ingrained in his mind. His autobiography giv es readers vivid, unforgettable, and shocking images of the past. It is beneficial thatRead MoreAnalysis Of Elie Wiesels Night933 Words   |  4 PagesThe author of Night, a novel documenting the horrible and gruesome events of the holocaust, Elie Wiesel expresses his experiences and observations in which he and his fellow Jews were dehumanized while living in concentration camps (a hell on earth). All Jews, as a race were brutalized by the Nazis during this time; reducing them to no less than objects, positions which meant nothing to them, belongings that were a nuisance. Nazis would gather every Jew that they could find and bring them to theseRead MoreElie Wiesels Night Essay766 Words   |  4 PagesIn the memoir, Night, author Elie Wiesel portrays the dehumanization of individuals and its lasting result in a loss of faith in God. Throughout the Holocaust, Jews were doggedly treated with disrespect and inhumanity. As more cruelty was bestowed upon them, the lower their flame of hope and faith became as they began turning on each other and focused on self preservation over family and friends. The flame within them never completely died, but rather stayed kindling throughout the journey untilRead MoreWhen Night Falls in Elie Wiesels Book, Night687 Words   |  3 PagesWhen Night Falls Elie Wiesel’s book Night presents certain aspects of Jewish history, culture and practice through the story of Wiesel’s experience with his father in the concentration camps. Wiesel witnessed many horribly tragic things throughout his days in the concentration camps. It is these experiences that cause him to struggle with his faith. He grew up as a devote Jew who enjoyed studying and devoting himself to his religion. Throughout the book we see him struggle with his concept

Understanding Counter Reformation Essay - 3694 Words

In order to understand the Counter Reformation one must consider the political factors and motivators behind them as well as the belief factors when examining clashes with the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church during 16th century experienced a reformation that was both politically and belief driven. The Catholic Reformation also known as the Counter Reformation allowed the church to clearly define its position, eliminate unchristian practices and examine its role in world. This paper will address the political motivators of the Counter Reformation, the unchristian practices that fueled corruption and the clearly defined religious concerns of reformers. It will establish that the use of patronage and nepotism ultimately undermined the†¦show more content†¦They saw the church and its leadership filled with corruption and greed. The Renaissance popes who led the church were not spiritual leaders. Those at the top of the clergy were wealthy and lived lavish lifestyles. They indulged in nepotism, power politics and patronage. Furthermore, the priests at the bottom were poor and unable to administer to the multiple parishes in their charge. Thus it can be said that Counter Reformation was a response to a need for clarity in purpose. But also, one can also say that the Counter Reformation was a natural and necessary response to the Protestant reformation. Catholic reform was slow until after the Protestant Revolution began to make serious in roads upon the ancient faith. A variety of Protestant sects had made their ways into almost half the nations of the Europe by the 16th century. Catholics were dismayed by the great increase in unorthodoxy. Many claim that the Counter Reformation was initiated to win back lost souls. Thus it can be said that the Counter Reformation was a response to maintain and gain back the followers. (Bossy) There were a variety of movements that initiated reform within the church. The Catholic Church during the Middles Ages had lost much as a religious institution. During this period ignorance and corruption in the church was insidious. One only has to look at the church leaders in Spain as evidence. Some priest didn’t even understand the Latin in the mass, monks keptShow MoreRelatedSaint Ignatius Loyola And The Spanish Army2008 Words   |  9 Pagesthe 21st century. Nevertheless, the reading of the rules for the order of Christian life within St. Ignatius Loyola’s spiritual exercise document should be read with respect for the Roman Catholic Church , and read with the understanding of the 16th century Counter Reformation, spirituality, and scholastic learning . Saint Ignatius had a small following of six, they all had the plan of moving to the holy land and live within the imitation of Jesus Christ himself, and to work on the conversion ofRead MoreMassacre Of The Innocents By Peter Paul1415 Words   |  6 Pagesto it’s audiences, this is because of the Counter reformation, and religious turmoil that happened in Europe during this time. Counter Reformation took place after the Protestant Reformation (1517-1550), it was the government, and the church’s attempt to re catholicize people , and bring them back to church during this time the counter reformation art theory was invented. In 17th century baroque art formed itself under the influence of counter reformation art theory. The Tridentine church used artRead MoreCauses Of The Protestant Reformation1635 Words   |  7 PagesThe Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious movement that took place in the Western church. Having far-reaching political, economic, and s ocial effect, the Reformation became the basis for the founding of Protestantism, one of the three major branches of Christianity. Without the changes caused by the Renaissance during the fifteenth century, the Reformation would not have been possible (Haigh). Reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Henry VIII challenged the Catholic churchRead MoreThe Holy Family With Saints Anne And John The Baptist, 1592 ( Oil On Canvas )1296 Words   |  6 Pagessustain the beauty of counter-reformation arts in her work by use of light and shadow, delicate brushwork and accurate proportions of each subjects. Anguissola is mostly interested in portraits painting, thus this is a unique one as an exception. As one of the well-known Counter reformist works, this masterpiece depicted the interest of religion worship in order to appeal to the viewers in an expressive fashion. â€Å"The Holy Family† was done during Catholic Counter-Reformation era. The Protestants mostlyRead MoreThe Protestant Reformation And The Catholic Church996 Words   |  4 PagesAt the dawn of the 16th century, the Catholic Church built upon the bureaucratic organization of the Roman Empire, became powerful, but also very corrupt. Calls for reformation within the Church started as early as the twelfth century. To try to resolve doctrinal issues and reform the church, nine councils were called between 1215 and 1545. However, all nine councils failed to reach any noteworthy protocol and agreement regarding the Church. The clergy was unable to follow the Church’s rules andRead MoreThe Protestant Reformation E ssay1014 Words   |  5 Pagesexpressions of the Protestant Reformation. This paper will discuss Lutheran Reformation, The Anabaptist, and The English Puritans as well as the Catholic Reformation also known as the Counter Reformation. It is the hope that after the reader has had the opportunity to view each of the characteristics and the expressions of each of the reformation the reader will have a better understanding of each and will be able to articulate the differences of each. The Protestant Reformation called the Protestant RevoltRead MoreHow Context Affects Art1074 Words   |  4 Pagesinfluence on the work’s themes, techniques, messages, etc. Without understanding the context of the era, a full understanding of the work will be impossible. A work of art can be analyzed within its historical contexts, such as historical circumstances, and contemporary art developments and trends. Most artists and their art pieces were very much influenced by the contexts they were surrounded by. The influence of the Catholic Reformation had taken place in different time periods and throughout EuropeanRead MoreThe Death Of The Black Death1487 Words   |  6 PagesItalian hearts. After this happened is when Italy started to decline. 4.Social and political conflict led to the society and religion: The reformation broke out first in the free imperial cities of Germany, Switzerland and the basic tenets of Lutheran and Zwinglian Protestantism remained visible in subsequent protestant movements. The protestant reformation occurred at a time of sharp conflict between the emerging nation-states of Europe bent within their realms and the self-governing towns andRead MoreMartin Luther Essay1557 Words   |  7 Pagesteachings inspired the Protestant Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines of Protestant and other Christian traditions. Martin Luther was born to Hans and Margaretha Luther on 10 November 1483 in Eisleben, Germany and was baptised the next day on the feast of St. Martin of Tours, after whom he was named. Luthers call to the Church to return to the teachings of the Bible resulted in the formation of new traditions within Christianity and the Counter-Reformation in the Roman Catholic Church, culminatingRead MoreMartin Luther And The Catholic Church1738 Words   |  7 Pagesfounded the Lutheran religion. Through his actions he not only changed the way that millions of Christians practiced their faith both now and in the past through the Protestant Reformation, he also changed the social-political boundaries in Europe due to increased religious tensions. In order to get a better understanding of the motives behind Luther’s actions we first need to know more about him. Martin Luther was born on November 10th, 1483 in Eisleben, Saxony, which is now a part of modern Germany

Egyptian Art and Architecture Essay Example For Students

Egyptian Art and Architecture Essay Egyptian Art and ArchitectureI INTRODUCTION Egyptian Art and Architecture, the buildings, paintings, sculpture, and allied arts of ancient Egypt, from prehistoric times to its conquest by the Romans in 30 bc. Egypt had the longest unified history of any civilization in the ancient Mediterranean, extending with few interruptions from about 3000 bc to the 4th century ad. The nature of the country, fertilized and united by the Nile, and its semi-isolation from outside cultural influences, produced an artistic style that changed little during this long period. Art in all its forms was devoted principally to the service of the pharaoh, who was considered a god on Earth, to the state, and to religion. From early times a belief in a life after death dictated that the dead be buried with material goods to their ensure well-being for eternity. The regular patterns of naturethe annual flooding of the Nile, the cycle of the seasons, and the progress of the Sun that brought day and nightwere con sidered gifts from the gods to the people of Egypt. Egyptian thought, morality, and culture were rooted in a deep respect for order and balance. Change and novelty were not considered important in themselves; thus the style and representational conventions in Egyptian art that were established early in the development of that civilization continued virtually unchanged for more than 3,000 years. To the modern eye the Egyptian artistic idiom may seem stiff and static; its underlying intention, however, was not to create an image of things as they appear in reality, but rather to capture the essence of a person, animal, or object for eternity. II PREDYNASTIC PERIOD The early prehistoric dwellers on the Nile inhabited the terraces or plateaux left by the river as it cut its bed. Tools and implements left by these early inhabitants of Egypt show their gradual development from seminomadic hunter-gatherers to settled agriculturists. By 4000 bc the civilization of Egypt was in its earliest formative stages; the Predynastic period, which lasted until about 3100 bc, had begun. Evidence of organized settlements dating from this period has been found, and artefacts produced are mainly associated with burials. Objects were put into the grave with the body for the use of the spirit in the next life; thus a great quantity of such personal goods as pottery, tools, and weapons has been preserved. The pottery is often decorated with painting that reflects the life of the time. Recurring motifs include images of birds and animals common to the land bordering the Nile, and, dating from the latter part of the Predynastic period, elaborate depictions of many-oared Nile boats. Copper was used in limited quantities for beads and simple tools, but most implements were knapped from stone. Palettes made of stone were used for grinding eye paint. Small sculptures and figurines were either carved from ivory and bone or modelled in clay. III THE OLD KINGDOM The Old Kingdom of Egypt, ruled by the 3rd to the 6th dynasties, spanned the five centuries between about 2755 bc and 2255 bc. In about 3100 bc the country was united under one rule by strong chieftains from the south. The idea, however, that Egypt was divided into two distinct partsUpper Egypt in the south and Lower Egypt in the northpersisted. The unification of Egypt, or one of the stages leading to it, is commemorated on the carved stone Palette of King Narmer (c. 3100 bc, Egyptian Museum, Cairo), on which the king, wearing the crown of the south, is shown subjugating peoples of the north. A Architecture At Abydos and Saqqara tombs for the kings of the early dynasties were built in imitation of palaces or shrines. The large amounts of pottery, stonework, and ivory or bone carving found in these tombs attest to a high level of development in Early Dynastic Egypt. Hieroglyphic script (picture writing), the written form of the Egyptian language, was in the first stages of its evolution. In the 3rd Dynasty the architect Imhotep built for Zoser (reigned c. 2640-c. 2621 bc) a complex at Saqqara, near the capital, Memphis; it was a burial ground that included a stepped pyramid of stone and a group of shrines and related buildings. The great Step Pyramid in which the remains of the king were laid is the oldest surviving example of monumental architecture; it also illustrates one of the phases in the development of the true pyramid. The architecture of the Old Kingdom can be described as monumental in the sense that native limestone and granite were used for the construction of large-scale buildings and tombs. Of the temples built during this period little remains. The pyramid complex at Giza where the kings of the 4th Dynasty were buried illustrates the ability of Egyptian architects to construct monuments that remain wonders of the world. The Great Pyramid of Khufu originally stood about 146 m (480 ft) high and contained about 2.3 million blocks with an average weight of 2.5 tonnes each. The purpose of pyramids was to preserve and protect the bodies of the kings for eternity. Each pyramid had a valley temple, a landing and staging area, and a pyramid temple or cult chapel where religious rites for the kings spirit were performed. Around the three major pyramids at Giza a necropolis (city of the dead) grew up, which contained mastabas (Arabic, mastabah, mud-brick bench), flat-roofed tombs with sloping slides, so called because of their resemblance to the sloped mud-brick benches in front of Egyptian houses. The mastabas were for the members of the royal family, high officials, courtiers, and functionaries. For the most part these tombs were co nstructed over shafts that led to a chamber containing the mummy and the offerings, but some tombs were cut into the limestone plateau and not constructed from blocks of stone. From the tombs at Giza and Saqqara it is clear that the houses they imitate were arranged on streets in well-planned towns and cities. Little is known for certain about the domestic architecture of the Old Kingdom, because houses and even palaces were built of unbaked mud brick and have not survived. The temples and tombs, built of stone and constructed for eternity, provide most of the available information on the customs and living conditions of the ancient Egyptians. B Sculpture From the early figures of clay, bone, and ivory in the Predynastic period, Egyptian sculpture developed quickly. By the time of Zoser, who reigned 2737-2717 bc, large statues of the rulers were made as resting places for their spirits. Egyptian sculpture is best described by the terms cubic and frontal. The block of stone was first made rectangular; the design of the figure was then drawn on the front and the two sides. The resulting statue was intended to be seen mainly from the front. Since it was meant to be a timeless image intended to convey the essence of the person depicted, there was no need for it to be composed in the round. The Egyptian artist was not interested in showing movement in the sense that this term is understood today. Standing figures are not posed as if they were walking but rather at rest. From the beginning of the dynastic period human anatomy was understood but given an ideal form. Images of the kings, in particular, were idealized and given great dignity. A seated stone figure (c. 2530 bc, Egyptian Museum) of Khafre, builder of the second-largest pyramid at Giza, embodies all the qualities that make Egyptian royal sculpture memorable. The king sits on a throne decorated with an emblem of the united lands, with his hands on his knees, head erect, and eyes gazing into the distance. A falcon of the god Horus behind his head symbolizes that he is the living Horus, one with the gods. All parts of the diorite statue are unified and balanced, creating a potent image of divine kingship. A number of sculptural forms were developed for the depiction of private individuals. In addition to seated and standing single figures, paired and group statues of the deceased with family members were made. Sculpture was of stone, of wood, and (rarely) of metal; paint was applied to the surface; the eyes were inlaid in other materials, such as rock crystal, to heighten the statues lifelike appearance. Only people of importance could have such statues of themselves made; a type of sculpture does exist, however, depicting workmen and women engaged in food preparation and the crafts. These were made to be included in the tomb to serve the spirit in the next life. Biotechnology EssayOn the west bank, near the necropolis of Thebes, temples for the funerary cult of the kings were built. During the New Kingdom the bodies of rulers were buried in rock-cut tombs in the arid Valley of the Kings, with the mortuary temples at some distance outside the valley. Of these, one of the first and most unusual was the mortuary temple (c. 1478 bc) of Hatshepsut at Dayr el-Bahri, built by the royal architect Senemut (died c. 1482 bc). Situated against the Nile cliffs next to the 11th-Dynasty temple of Mentuhotep II, and probably inspired by it, the temple is a vast terraced structure with numerous shrines to the gods and reliefs depicting Hatshepsuts accomplishments. Other kings did not follow her precedent; they built their temples at the edge of the cultivated land, away from the cliffside. The rock-cut tombs were dug deep into the cliffsides of the Valley of the Kings in an effortnot always successfulto conceal the resting places of the royal mummies. The long descending passageways, stairs, and chambers were decorated in relief and painted with scenes from religious texts intended to protect and aid the spirit in the next life. In the 19th Dynasty, Ramses II, one of the greatest builders of the New Kingdom, created the gigantic rock-cut temple of Abu Simbel in Nubia, to the south. It was hewn into the mountainside and fronted by four colossal figures of the king. Between 1964 and 1968, to save it from immersion beneath the waters of the new Asw#257;n Dam, the facade and halls of the entire temple were cut out of the mountain and moved to a higher location. As in all periods, domestic and palace architecture was of perishable mud brick. Enough remains have been preserved, however, to convey an idea of well-planned multiroomed palaces with painted floors, walls, and ceilings. Houses for the upper classes were arranged like small estates, with residential and service buildings in an enclosed compound. Examples of the modest workers dwellings can even be found, clustered together in villages very much like those of modern Egypt. B Sculpture In the New Kingdom the art of sculpture reached a new height. The severe stylization of the Old Kingdom and the bitter realism of the Middle Kingdom were replaced with a courtly style combining a sense of nobility with a careful attention to delicate detail. Begun in the reigns of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III, this style reached a maturity in the time of Amenhotep III that was never again equalled in Egypt. Portraits of rulers were imbued with grace and sensitivity, as were depictions of the courtiers. The art of the time of Akhenaton, son of Amenhotep III, reflects the religious revolution this king set into motion. Akhenaton worshipped Aten, the sun god, and he believed art should have a new direction. Early in his reign a realism bordering on caricature was employed, but this developed into a style with a subtle beauty and a deep sense of feeling, qualities embodied in the painted limestone head (c. 1365 bc, Staatliche Museen, Berlin) of Nefertiti, Akhenatons queen. C Painting While relief carving was used during the New Kingdom principally for the decoration of religious structures, the art of painting came to dominate the decoration of private tombs. The necropolis at Thebes is a rich source of information on the slowly changing artistic tradition, as well as of vivid illustrations of life at the time. The medium of painting made possible a wider range of expression than sculpture, allowing the artist to create colourful tableaux of life on the Nile. Officials are shown inspecting the exotic tribute brought to Egypt from all parts of the known world. The crafts of the royal workshops are depicted in meticulous detail, illustrating the production of all manner of objects, from massive sculptures to delicate jewellery. Funerary rites, from the procession to the tomb to the final prayers for the spirits, are illustrated. One of the standard elements in Theban tomb painting, known as early as the Old Kingdom, is a representation of the deceased hunting and fishing in the papyrus marshes, pastimes he would have wanted to enjoy throughout eternity. D Decorative Arts In their high level of accomplishment, the decorative arts of the New Kingdom are equal to the sculpture and painting of that period. Ordinary objects for the use of the court and the nobility were exquisitely designed and made with great technical skill. Nowhere is this better shown than in the funerary items from the tomb (discovered in 1922) of Tutankhamen, in which rich materialsalabaster, ebony, gold, ivory, and semi-precious stoneswere combined in objects of consummate artistry. Even the pottery of the New Kingdom exhibits this rich love of decoration, their surfaces brilliantly painted, mainly with floral motifs. From the evidence of tomb paintings and the decorative arts, the Egyptians of this time took particular delight in a richly colourful life. VI LATE PERIOD The strong kings of the 18th and 19th dynasties and the first part of the 20th Dynasty were succeeded by weak rulers who allowed the country to fall from their grasp. Ramses III, the last powerful ruler of the 20th Dynasty, built an immense mortuary temple (1198-1167 bc) on the west bank of the Nile at Medinet Habu, near Thebes, which remains one of the best preserved today. A palace adjoined the temple; it is clear that the king visited and used it during his lifetime. Battle scenes from the campaigns that Ramses III organized in the defence of Egypt from foreign invasion are vividly recorded in reliefs on the temple walls. The 21st to 24th dynasties are considered the Third Intermediate period, a span of more than 350 years, with rulers at Sais, Tanis, and Bubastis in the Nile delta. The rulers of the 25th Dynasty who reunited Egypt were foreigners from Cush in the Sudan; they worshipped Egyptian gods, however, and espoused Egyptian customs in the belief that it was their duty to restore Egypt to glory. These Cushite kings refurbished temples and built new structures dedicated to the gods. They incorporated in their names those of famous kings of the past, and their art imitated scenes and motifs from earlier monuments. The practice of pyramid burial was revived in their homeland of Cush. During their reign the Assyrians invaded Egypt and eventually put an end to Cushite domination. The Assyrians were not able to hold the country; the appointed vassals of the Assyrians created a new native dynasty at Sais and ruled for nearly 140 years. The Saites continued the tradition of restoration begun by the Cushites, and the arts flourished. Sculpture and bronze casting became major industries; contacts were made with the Greeks, some of whom served in the Egyptian army as mercenaries. A Jewish colony was even established as far south as Asw#257;n, testifying to contact by the Saite kings with the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. The art of the 26th Dynasty used many ancient forms, often literally copying motifs from earlier monuments. An interest in perceptive portraiture begun in the 25th Dynasty was continued, sometimes with splendid results. The 26th Dynasty ended with the invasion by the Persian Empire and, except for brief periods, Egypt was never again completely free from foreign domination. The conquest of the country by Alexander the Great in 332 bc and by the Romans in 30 bc brought Egypt into the Classical world, but the ancient artistic traditions persisted. Alexander and his successors were depicted on the walls of temples as Egyptian kings in an Egyptian style of relief carving. Temples were built in the Ptolemaic period (the dynasty founded by Alexander) and in the Roman period that echoed traditional Egyptian styles in architecture. Egyptian art also exerted a powerful influence on the cultures of the invaders. Early Greek artists acknowledged a debt to Egypt in the development of their own styles. The Romans so loved Egyptian art that they carried off to their homeland countless examples and even had imitations of Egyptian sculpture carved by Roman artists. The influence of Egyptian art and the fascination with Egyptian antiquity have persisted to the present day.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Structure - Operations and Strategies of Pfizer Australian

Question: Discuss about theStructure,Operations and Strategies of Pfizer Australian. Answer: Introduction Pfizer an Australian Pharmaceutical company specializing in the development and manufacture of medicines for both people and animals. These medicines come in a biologic and small molecule portfolio in medicines, vaccines, and nutritional products. The company has been in the pharmaceutical business for over a decade thus gaining substantial market power within Australia. Due to competition and influx of many firms in the field, the company has developed strategies aimed at limiting competition which have led to several challenges like court cases due to lowering of cholesterol products and use of atorvastatin product to the community. The company has developed as an industry leader promising new products that have the potential to meets the needs of the market and emerging diseases today. The company delivers commitment to patients, customers and shareholders through improving business daily (Pfizer 2016). Companys Structure Structures define the way a company arranges employees and jobs to enable the organization perform its functions so as to meets its goals. Larger organizations base their structures on formal structures that are based on establishing procedures on how responsibilities are assigned for various positions within the company. This means that the responsibilities of employees are defined by their responsibilities and the immediate person that they report to. Therefore company structure is based on positions and not individuals within the organization. These structures depend on various factors like work, size of the company or number of employees, revenue and the geographical dispersion of the facilities that a company has. These facilities define the range of businesses that a company engages in and define the level of diversification across the market (Grewal and Tansuhaj 2001, p. 11) Since the company has grown and increased in both size and complexity, there are many business areas that the company has invested in. The company changed its operational structure to a commercial operating structure that is based on business units. This is due to the continued changes in the company that have increased bureaucracy within the company. The need to remove hierarchies and bureaucracy which affects decision-making led to the adoption of the strategic business units within the organization. These units give accountability and decision-making to executive officers who are responsible for the decisions they make. Thus the company operates nine diverse global businesses in the field of healthcare, this, therefore means that each business unit will have its manager with clear accountability for results from the initial development of the product line to access by patients through the end of the product life (Nilsson and Rapp 1999, p,69). The company operates nine biopharmaceu tical businesses units that are managed by executive offices who report to four general managers who are in charge of a range of business units. These units are; Specialty Care and Vaccines Business unit, primary care unit, Oncology, established products, animal health, capsugel, consumer health, nutritional health, emerging markets. This type of structure has given the company the best way of managing all the business functions and areas that exist. The structure is the most preferred since it allows a company to be able to manage its business operations. This allows the units to be operated like separate companies being fully accountable for profits and losses (Allen, Becerik, Pollalis and Schwegler 2005, p. 309). Companys Leadership Style The company is led based on the principles of the classical school of management which describes a leadership style based on written rules and bureaucratic office holding based on trained individuals and proper skills that meets the defined job responsibilities of the task. This means that standards need to be set so as to be used in measuring actual performance of employees and a proper way of administration through hierarchical techniques. Modern companies are run based on either implementing a fully bureaucratic structure or one other form of leadership with a few bureaucratic ideas (Schmidt and Brauer 2006, p. 15). The company has a proper division of labor where employees are divided into departments based on their specialization. This enables the company to balance between power and responsibilities within the company. The company has nine departments that are run based on specialization of the individual based on their expertise. Through specialization, a chain of command based on hierarchy is established where an employee reports to the immediate boss within the department. Strategic business units within the company however, have minimised the hierarchy by enabling departments to make their own decisions that are reported to the top management. Complete and consistent rules are applied based on the skills, experience and age of employees. Each department and unit has specific requirements for employees that can work in it. These formal rules determine all the activities that are run in the company (IBIS World 2015, p.13). Employees are selected and promoted based on their qualifications; this ensures that only properly qualified individuals are allowed to occupy positions and offices. All employees are expected to draw a line between their own assets and organizational assets. This enables the employees to utilize available assets within the organization to meets the needs of the company. However, employee development is a key thing that enables the company to develop leaders who can take up leadership positions when the one s above have either retired or turned over. Standards for employee assessment are set and at the same time having procedures for corrective action in case of mistakes within the company (Northouse 2007, p. 12). However, the leadership style delays decision-making within the company since final decisions have to be made by the top executives. Accountability and responsibility in decision-making has led to the need for unit heads to take responsibility in decision-making. Further, this leadership style does not give room for development of informal groups that are good developing group dynamics and improving team work. Since the company keeps on increasing its business activities and acquiring new markets, the need to adopt a less formalised structure will increase decision-making speed and improve efficiency within the company (Rowe 2007, p14). Companys Strategies within Australia and/or Overseas Markets Grant (2005, p.11) argues that companies take actions based on the resources to develop new products focussed on promotion. Pfizers product development strategy is aimed at continued considerable momentum of the company to develop new lines of business and acquire assets that can help the company enter into emerging markets. In 2016 the company has four major business strategies that need to be achieved; improving the performance of the innovation, maximizing value, earning greater respect from society and creating a culture of ownership. The innovation business line is the most important strategy that the company uses to stay in the market and mange completion. According to Calisha (206, p. 10) businesses have keep on developing new products that meet the changing needs of the market? Markets are not static and thus will keep on changing due to different needs that keep on developing. Innovations are developed through investment in research and development to exploiting of new opportunities within the market. Pfizer allocates the largest share of its resources to research and development to enable development of new unique products that can give the company strategic advantage. For each new product that the company develops, a license and patent rights are created to retain the uniqueness of the product to the company (Bennett 2010, p.11). The company has continuously maximised its value through taking advantage of the large business operations. The company can continue increasing its projects due to its enormous resources. Through continuous penetration into new markets and developing new products that are quickly absorbed into the market, the company can maximise its value by engaging in deep research and investing more resources in research and development. The company further invests in a focused sales force that can overcome competition within the industry. The sales forces are not based on competition and imitation y other companies but rather sales and professionals teams are recruited from the top professionals to develop a sales force that cannot be imitated by any other company. Further, the sales force is reconfigured every time through changing promotional responsibilities and territory alignments make it difficult for imitation (Mintzberg 1994, p21). Respect from the society is earned and developed through continuous maintenance and improvement of the reputation of the company with customers, communities and shareholders. The management works hard to ensure the company thrives well in business to give the shareholders greater benefit on their investment. The company has several products in the market that are not easily substituted. This is through developing generic products based on the subsidiary name Greenstone (Matthew Jonathan 2009, p.8). Creating a culture of ownership within the workforce has seen the company with the best human resources within Australia. The human resource is based on education, experience and collaborative skills. This has enabled the company develop personal intellectual strengths and diverse thinking that has led to the innovative forces behind the company. Today the company is developing new organizational structure that is based on developing a new culture based on seizing opportunities. This will be a key driver of competition to enable the company change and survive in the changing pharmaceutical pressures within the industry. Comments on Pfizer Structure and Strategies Today management and leadership styles have changed with many organizations moving away from traditional and classical structures to modern structures that are hierarchical with reduced decision-making time. Therefore Pfizer needs to reduce the bureaucracy within the company and adopt a less hierarchical structure that will have lower level managers at the sub unit level. This enables quick decision-making and innovations that can propel the company to higher levels. Employees need freedom to make decisions based on the level of responsibilities that they have. Reduced s Despite the dominance in the both the industry and market share, the pharmaceutical industry is undergoing many transformations that have led to the need for businesses to develop new strategies that will enable survival in the future. The strategies need to be aligned along expanding to new geographical areas, improving business operations and diversifying business activities to meets the needs of the growing number of patients. Pfizer can improve and expand its business market across other regions that have not been largely dominated by major players in the industry. Developed countries offer a greater market filed with aging populations, obesity, heart diseases cancer and diabetes. Therefore an investment in drugs that will meet the conditions of this population will give the company an increased market share and larger profits (Brews and Christopher 2004, p. 431). Pfizer has to increase research and development investments to meets the increasing needs of the company. Increased size, patent issues and price pressures from the market pose a major threat to the company. However, partnerships and acquisitions can be the best solution that will enable the company meets its overwhelming size. This will enable streamlining of processes within the company to enable effective spending and changing the work habits in the company (Slater, S.F., and Olson, E.M. (2001, p.1059). Further, the future business opportunities are unpredictable making many companies to identify major areas that they can specialize in. The need to grow the potential of the company can be achieved through acquiring smaller companies that are controlling segments within the market. This will offer competitive advantage that will enable the company to survive future competition. Conclusion The need to stay relevant in the market is the core business strategy of any firm, businesses challenges and market forces make companies to shrink or close down businesses due to increased losses. Therefore Pfizer can develop new products that are based on the emerging market trends. The health care industry offers greater opportunities due to disease like cancer and diabetes that cannot be controlled. This therefore offers health care industries the best opportunity to develop products that meets the needs of these increasing segments in the society. However, the company has also had negative effects and reactions from the larger public. Government regulations in Australia and international markets also keep changing, the company should therefore ensure that it meets the requirement and complies with patent issues that have been established within the market (Lawrence 2015, p.5). With increased research and development, partnerships and mergers, Pfizer has room for growth and susta inability that will enable the company to survive competition in the global market that is flooded with over five hundred firms within the sector. References Allen, R. K., Becerik, B., Pollalis, S. N., and Schwegler, B. R. 2005. Promise and Barriers to Technology Enabled and Open Project Team Collaborati. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education Practice, 131(4), 301-311. 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